31 October, 2011

Blood Transfusions

What is a transfusion?

Transfusion is a therapeutic procedure involving the intravenous injection to a person of a considerable amount of blood from a donor. For this to be made ​​with efficiency and safety is very important to note a number of clinical and laboratory procedures, from the time the blood is obtained from the donor to the recipient that is injected, to ensure maximum therapeutic benefit and minimum possible risk.

Stock and blood samples
The transfusion today is an extremely safe procedure

The donation

represents the solidarity gesture to donate a small part of our blood (which is no more than 10% of the total blood in our bodies) to benefit those in need is still necessary today while it is not possible to replace this precious tissue body.

When a person decides to donate their blood should be directed to a blood bank of a hospital or mobile unit donated scavenging on the streets. There shall be informed of the basic profile must have a suitable donor will be recognized medically and be asked about whether it meets basic conditions, or if instead it has some feature that makes it inadvisable donation. You will be asked to fill in this form where it reviews the conditions and requirements. This first phase is necessary to exclude persons who may reasonably doubt about their suitability as donors.

The donor's right conditions are regulated by law in all countries. In Spain you can summarize the basic criteria underlying the regulation according to the following sections:

  • Person aged 18 years and under 65, who came by choice and not have donated blood in the last 2 months.

  • In good general health and normal conditions (weight, blood pressure and heart rate normal, no fever, no complaints of unexplained causes, without having been recently operated without being subject to patents medication side effects, etc.)..

  • Free from any communicable disease or at risk of having acquired in the last year (living with infectious patients, having received transfusions in the last year, unsafe sex, because they come from areas or countries with endemic diseases or epidemics. ).

  • Also free of certain diseases (heart disease, hyperthyroidism , insulin-dependent diabetes , cancer, anemia , clotting diseases, epilepsy , peptic ulcer , asthma, severe allergies to medications , etc.)..

  • Free from the risk of being under the influence of toxic substances ( drug addicts , people taking certain drugs, etc.)..

Complying with the right conditions, the donation does not involve any particular risk to anyone. The donation process usually lasts no more than ten or fifteen minutes and the amount must be drawn that fills a bag of 450 cc. If you can get this number, the donation is usually discarded.

After obtaining the blood analysis is performed to check the same as the donor is healthy and free of communicable diseases. This is determined, usually by serological testing to detect the presence of antibodies to certain viruses, bacteria and parasites. These antibodies usually appear within days or weeks in people who contract an infection.

When concludes sure that donated blood is not receiving any possible risks, it is split in different components useful for transfusion: packed red blood cells (cells that carry oxygen), concentrated platelets (cells that repair damage to blood vessels) and plasma (blood fluid containing serum proteins remaining), mainly.

The blood fractionation because it makes possible the maximum use and more secure employment. The fractional blood is also used for clotting factor concentrates (proteins that are essential to stop bleeding) and other derivatives (albumin, immunoglobulins, white blood cells, etc.).

What types of transfusions exist?

transfusions may be of various types depending on the need to submit the recipient under the disease suffered. The donation is the most common of packed red blood cells (RBCs). Diseases that can make the necessary transfusion of packed red blood cells are numerous (severe bleeding, acute leukemia, anemia treatment after chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer, aplastic anemia, major surgery, myelodysplastic syndrome, hemolytic anemia, etc..), but all have as a common key that there is a severe anemia that can not be corrected by other means and seriously jeopardizing the cardiocirculatory function and blood oxygen in the body.

Anemia is a situation where there is a shortage of hemoglobin, which is the oxygen-carrying protein, present in red blood cells. If anemia occurs because it is always in the blood not enough hemoglobin, which generally corresponds to an excessively low number of red blood cells, but not always. Therefore, the key figure of the blood of a person who requires a transfusion is the level of hemoglobin, which indicates the capability of fully oxygenated blood. When this figure is less than 9 g / dL is usually necessary to transfuse packed red blood cells, but if the doctor is convinced that hemoglobin may be increased by the patient due to an expected good outcome of the disease or by other therapeutic means, you can decide not. The final key to the decision lies above all in the patient's general condition and the reversibility or otherwise of their anemia by other means.

The number of bags required packed red blood cells varies according to each case, but you must decide the total volume just to ensure the recovery of an adequate minimum hemoglobin level to overcome their bad situation, neither more nor less.

The transfusion of platelet transfusion is another necessary for certain patients. A platelet concentrate is obtained by adding the appropriate fractions from several donations of whole blood platelets are therefore derived from the blood more precious still.

The preparation of platelet concentrates not only done by the sum of the platelets of several withdrawals. It is also possible to concentrate platelets by apheresis procedures quote. This technique obtains a platelet concentrate from a single donor and is performed selectively extracting a small percentage of such cells in your blood. This is achieved by passing the blood of a donor's arms to a machine that is only removed in the same platelets. Then, the machine returns the remaining blood to the donor by injection into a vein in the opposite arm. The process usually lasts no more than 2 hours and carries no risks of note in the vast majority of donors.

The precise conditions that cause platelet donation are those that produce an acute shortage of these cells in the blood and an increased risk bleeding from this cause ( leukemia acute exacerbation of hemorrhagic syndrome, liver transplant surgery, aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, politransfusión of red cells, etc..) Platelet transfusion is indicated generally in the blood when the figure drops to less platelets/mm3 of 50,000 in the risk of bleeding. When the level drops to less than 10,000 platelets/mm3 the risk of bleeding is so remarkable that transfusion is usually always indicated if there are no other therapeutic alternative elevate immediately get that figure.

Other possible transfusions are fresh frozen plasma or factor concentrates, which are often required in cases where there are partial or global deficits of certain blood proteins, especially coagulation factors. The transfusion of white blood cells is also possible for severely immunocompromised patients, but is rarely used today as usual.

Today it is very unusual to indicate transfusions of whole blood because it is rare that a patient requires more than a derivative transfusion and medically acceptable because it is the added risk and waste that can result from improper input from other blood components not needed.

What are the risks of transfusions?

transfusion today is an extremely safe procedure. This is because to comply with strict security measures to ensure a careful selection of suitable healthy donors, a careful fractionation, processing and preservation of blood products and transfusion bags assignment completely safe for the recipient in terms of compatibility. To carry out this last phase of the process is essential that concentrates transfused are the same blood group as the receiver. There are many known blood groups, but the most important of all the systems belonging to the ABO and Rh antigens, but there are other systems that must be taken into account in the allocation of blood transfusions.

For this reason, before transfusion is always done in the lab what are called cross-matching. These consist of a small sample meet the recipient's blood with different blood samples of concentrated pockets of the same ABO blood group and Rh thereof, and choose only those where there is not a rejection of the mix. Thus, only those products that are transfused do not react with the recipient's blood, thus ensuring a safe and appropriate transfusion therapy performance.

All these security measures get very low percentages reduce the possibility of adverse effects resulting from transfusion therapy. However, it may even eliminate these risks absolutely. Thus the general approach is to prescribe transfusion only when strictly necessary.

Some of the risks, often rare, are the transmission of infectious diseases, for various reasons, including: poor maintenance of products, transmission of a donor who is not clinically manifested infection (and not been detected prior to the study recently have contracted the disease) group incompatibility reactions, allergic reactions, fever posttransfusion (for the transmission of pyrogens, which are substances that promote onset of fever, or cells that produce these substances); complex immunological effects or effects of the politransfusión.

Why is still needed transfusion therapy?

For certain diseases exist today transfusion alternative treatments. In many patients, for a few years ago there was no other option, it is now possible treatment with erythropoietin, a hormone produced continuously by the kidney and whose main effect is to stimulate red blood cell production. In recent years it has managed to synthesize this material and now many patients with anemia benefit from the therapeutic use of this hormone. Unfortunately, there is still the possibility of use of a hormone similar drug on the production of platelets, called thrombopoietin, but hopefully this is a reality in the not too distant future.

The technology that permits the manufacture of synthetic preparations of blood or similar fluids ability to bind oxygen, and research is still expected to take several years to come.

Until then it remains imperative to maintain and stimulate solidarity which is the act of giving our blood, but on a regular basis, not to mention that throughout the year in our hospitals there is an ongoing need for blood products.

Causes of stretch marks on the body

Origin of the grooves. The striations are the result of the breakdown of elastic fibers in the skin, because when it is stretched too much, to accommodate the increased volume of the body, less elastic fibers break down and create those famous brands . At first they are pink, then red and finally white. Why leave stretch marks on the skin: yo-yo dieting or weight goes up and down: • One of the most common causes of stretch marks appear. Hormonal changes: • The most common case is when girls reach puberty and begin to grow breasts, also occur with menopause, even without any weight increased or decreased sharply. Inheritance: • Another common cause, in other words if her mother does, is probably one of his legacies. Pregnancy • Stretching the skin of the abdomen produces, in most cases, the rupture of the tissues, because as the skin is made ​​up of fibers in a mesh if the stretch is very sharp and fast, or if there is deficiency of elastin (a substance that causes the skin elasticity) and collagen (which provides firmness), there is a risk they present, the internal and external rupture.

Which brings tea acacia

What diseases acacia fights? acacia tea us the following benefits on health. For what is good acacia tea: • Fights acidity in the stomach, flatulent colic, stomach pain and belching acid. • Sweetened with honey, acacia tea is effective in combating diseases of the throat and chest.

30 September, 2011

Gynecological examination

What is a gynecological exam?

In the various specialties of medicine scans better try to fix the patient and obtain data to guide the diagnosis of their condition, so for example when a person has a sense of fatigue , the doctor listen to the lungs to see the degree of involvement or the main location of your problem.

When a woman goes to the gynecologist for any problems related to their reproductive system, the specialist must submit to an examination which is a recognition of the external genitals, vagina and the cervix or uterus .

To explore the vagina and the cervix, it is necessary to introduce an instrument called a speculum, it is a little gadget on a duck-billed, which when opened in the interior of the vagina reveals the cervix; of Thus it can be seen from a macroscopic point of view and see the possible injury of the vaginal wall.

The second part of the gynecological examination is the introduction of the index and middle fingers inside the vagina of the woman, placing the other hand on the lower abdomen, thus exploring the uterus and ovaries, receiving information about the shape, position and size, as well as its consistency and mobility.

Why is it different this examination to any other?

The main problem with this exploration is the shame and embarrassment that the patient manifests. This sentiment is logical and understandable, given the position you have to take the wife and the intimate nature of exploration. However, the best advice you can give is to make the necessary effort to relax, much less bother you because each of the interventions that we have previously explained.

This, presumably, has its logical explanation, because when a woman contracts the muscles of the pelvis also do, which causes the locking of the speculum into the walls of the vagina, causing more discomfort.

In the case older women, postmenopausal , or not regularly maintained sex, discomfort may be higher due to the lack of elasticity presented, in which case the practitioner uses lubricant on the speculum for better slip into the vagina.

For this reason, the best you can think of the woman who goes to the gynecologist, is subjected to a normal and necessary to scan it, and that the doctor is a valuable exploration. For its part, the physician should not forget what it might mean for the patient.

When should the first gynecological examination?

Every woman should undergo a gynecological examination when you start having sex and, of course, when present any problem of gynecological origin.

A virgin can be explored Gynecology

Yes, but with the following differences: the speculum will be smaller, and as much as the hymen will not allow that, and as for bimanual palpation (with both hands) is performed by inserting a finger in the vagina, while the other is placed in the rectum, to rule out abnormalities of the internal genitalia.

21 September, 2011

Face lifting

The face is the mirror of the soul, they say. Their delicate skin contains traces of the passing years, the harmful effects of sun exposure , and reflects the ups and downs, problems and sufferings of people, which often manifests as wrinkles, sagging skin folds pronouncement and accumulations or deposits of fat around the neck.

Operand.  In the foreground, surgical instruments
All surgery carries certain risks precesses

The face is, moreover, one of the body areas that people most often ask to be modified and the nose is an organ very prominent in shaping the face. This paper deals with two popular surgical techniques classified as plastic or cosmetic surgery of the face, rhinoplasty and facial skin tightening or lifting .

What is rhinoplasty?

nose surgery or rhinoplasty is one of the most commonly used surgical techniques in cosmetic and plastic surgery. Patients can ask their plastic surgeon to reduce or increase the size of your nose, change the shape of the tip of the nose or nasal bridge, change the degree and form of opening of the nostrils, or even the angle between the nose and upper lip. Some patients with nasal defects of birth, or injury, trauma or even trouble breathing through the nose for a deviated septum often also request this procedure.

What is?

Rhinoplasty is a surgical technique that involves separating the skin from the nose of the underlying structures of bone and nasal cartilage to once sculpted nose as desired and depending on the initial problem, re-attach the skin to the new structure. Most plastic surgeons perform the technique from inside the nose, making incisions in the nostrils inerior to avoid unsightly scars on the skin of the face. Other surgeons prefer what is called the "open surgery", ie, make the incision in the skin of the small wall between the nostrils, especially in more complicated cases.

After the surgery, the surgeon will usually place a small nasal cast or splint to keep the new shape of the nose.

This technique can be done with local or general anesthesia depending on patient preferences and the procedure to be followed.

Indications for rhinoplasty

course, the best candidates for rhinoplasty are suffering a people seeking to improve, but fails to look perfect. The technique can arise, as we have seen, both to achieve aesthetic goals and to correct birth defects or respiratory passages. Many surgeons prefer not to operate on teenagers until they complete their development to avoid problems later.

Risks, Complications and side effects

As with any surgical procedure, rhinoplasty involves always the possibility of occurrence of risks, complications and side effects. The most common complications are infection, nosebleed , or reactions to anesthesia .

After surgery the patient may experience headache , swollen face and pain in the nose. The swelling and bruising around the eyes are prominent at the beginning and gradually increase during the first 2-3 days, then fades away in a couple of weeks. You can reduce the inflammation by applying cold compresses, so the patient will feel better.

In the early days it is common to produce a small amount of bleeding from the nose and nasal stuffiness feeling for several weeks. Chances are that the patient can not blow your nose until several days or weeks to let the tissues heal and recover.

The facelift, or skin tightening facial

Surgery of facial skin tightening, technically known as rhytidectomy, it obviously can not stop the natural aging process, but it can improve the most visible signs of it through removal of excess fat in joining the underlying muscles and re-attach the sagging of the face and neck. Often this procedure arises simultaneously with others, such as stretching of the skin of the forehead, eyelid surgery or nose surgery or rhinoplasty, described above.

It is important to note that a facelift is a very individualized. The plastic surgeon will evaluate your face, including skin and bone structures, and advise the best procedure for each case.

What is?

It is difficult to establish exactly how to make a facial skin tightening because each surgeon has their own method for the procedure. The exact location of the incisions and the sequence of events depends on the patient's facial structure and technique, and surgeon preference.

But in general the skin incisions are made ​​initially by the hairline of the scalp over the temples, extend in a natural line in front of the ear (or just inside the front of the ear cartilage) and continues behind the lobe of the same to the lower scalp area. If you must work on the neck, you can also make a small incision under the chin.

In general, the surgeon separates the skin from underlying fat and muscle. Fat may be trimmed or suctioned from the neck area or the chin to improve contour. Then reinforces the underlying muscle and membrane, pulls the skin back and remove the excess of it. Stitches secure the layers of tissue and close the incisions can be used metal staples to the scalp. Commonly used local anesthetic and a sedative.

Who is subjected to this intervention?

generally undergo a facelift some people whose face and neck have begun to present sagging, but whose skin still retains some elasticity and whose bone structure is strong and well defined. Most of these patients are between 40 and 60 years, although this technique can also be performed in patients 70 to 80 years.

Risks, Complications and side effects

As with any surgical procedure, also stretching the facial skin and involves certain risks, although infrequent and mild, complications. The most common complications include hematoma, injury to the nerves that innervate the facial muscles (usually temporary and reversible), infection and adverse reactions to anesthesia.

Most of the scars are hidden within the hair and skin folds, therefore generally not be a problem.

During the early days operated patients experience a swelling of the face that prevents them from proper mobilization of the facial muscles, so feel stiff. As a curiosity, men who have surgery now find they need to shave in new places behind the neck and ears as they have been repositioned skin areas that generate facial hair in these new locations.

Many times, due to the passage of the years , which does not pass in vain, new interventions will be needed within 5 to 10 years to maintain the desired effect.

18 September, 2011

Investing in health is investing in our work

Did you know that for more than 45 years, community health centers have provided a primary health services, comprehensive prevention and high quality patient care regardless of ability to pay? For many Americans, community health centers are the main source of their health care. Everyone, from prevention to treatment. Currently, there are more than 8,100 centers around the country that provide high quality health care to 20 million people.
In addition to keeping our families healthy, community health centers contribute to the prosperity of the local economy by creating well-paying jobs. That's why we have announced today that thanks to the Health Care Act we Affordable $ 700 billion in new financing to pay for the renovation and construction of community health centers.
Since the beginning of 2009, health centers have added more than 18.600 new jobs full time in many communities with the nation's economic difficulties. And these new funding announced today will help continue this trend and generate thousands of jobs nationwide. Here are some details. In 2010, community health centers provided employment for more than 131,000 people, including:
  • Medical 9.600
  • 11.400 nurses
  • 9.500 dentists and oral health professionals
  • 6.400 nurse practitioners, physician assistants and certified nurse-midwives
  • 4.200 professional mental health care
  • And more than 12,000 case managers and staff for health education, outreach and transportation
All this is part of ongoing investments to the health of Americans of the Obama administration. By improving health care and create jobs, strengthen our communities.

11 September, 2011

Botox: Botulinum toxin cosmetic treatment

In recent years a new treatment has made deep inroads into the world of cosmetic and plastic surgery and in the cosmetics: the vistabel, Botox, or botulinum toxin.

Operating Room
Must be a qualified doctor who injected botulinum toxin

The search for eternal youth makes women especially, but increasingly men, are able to use all kinds of treatments, including this new one, in which a toxin or poison is injected under the skin to remove wrinkles on the face. More popular than breast augmentation surgery, this new treatment is seen by some as the ultimate fountain of youth.

What is botulinum toxin?

botulinum toxin type A is a protein produced by a bacterium called Clostridium botulinum , which contains the same toxin that causes severe and often fatal disease called botulism food poisoning.

Its use in the treatment of diseases (blepharospasm and strabismus or uncontrollable blinking of the eyes) was adopted 15 years ago. Later expanded the spectrum of diseases eligible for this type of treatment of cervical dystonia, a neurological disease that causes severe contractions of the shoulders and neck, and more recently also used for hyperhidrosis or excessive sweating of underarms and hands .

As an extraordinary finding as unusual side effects or unusual treatment of eye disorders, doctors saw that the drug eliminated the vertical lines of the skin between the eyebrows, those wrinkles between the eyebrows that make us look tired, angry or unsatisfied.

How does this substance?

Basically, small doses of botulinum toxin used in medicine act by blocking the release of a chemical produced in nerve endings called acetylcholine that is responsible for muscle contractions. When thus the ability to selectively interfere contraction of the muscles of the desired areas, the lines of the skin and soften frown, in most cases disappear within a week.

In what situations is used in the world of plastic and cosmetic surgery?

botulinum toxin injections are a cosmetic procedure that is growing fastest in the industry.

The current indications approved a couple of years by the U.S. Agency for Medicines and Food (FDA, its acronym in English) are the temporary improvement in the appearance of skin lines of moderate to severe frown on people aged 18 to 65 years. It is considered a minimally invasive treatment.

However, despite its approval only as outlined above, is currently being used by many doctors, surgeons and clinics for the treatment of facial wrinkles, so that users of this technique should be advised that Safety and efficacy of these injections in other regions or areas of the face and neck, alone or in combination with skin lines between the eyebrows, have not been clinically evaluated.

When Botox is contraindicated?

The injection of botulinum toxin is contraindicated when there is an infection in the area where treatment will be applied and in individuals with known hypersensitivity to any of the preparations of the product.

The laboratory which markets have warned that a high risk of side effects in people who suffer major neurological diseases such as:

  • amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

  • la miastenia gravis

  • the Eaton-Lambert syndrome, a rare disease of the nerves and muscles.

What are the most common side effects?

The most common side effects are headache , pain and redness of the face, respiratory infections, flu syndrome , temporary eyelid drop, muscle weakness and nausea. Have been described, however, more serious adverse effects, ranging from pneumonia , swallowing disorders and generalized muscle weakness even some deaths. Other findings have been rare cardiovascular disorders, including arrhythmias and myocardial infarction , seizures , facial paralysis and others. Most of these problems occur within the first week after treatment application, and although some reverse soon, others may last for months or years.

It is important to note that there is no chance of contracting botulism toxin injections administered botulinum.

It is noted that this treatment may involve multiple risks from improper use and lends itself to abuse (have detected such treatments in health clubs, hotels, lounges and other places have even proposed the so-called parties of botulinum toxin in which many patients are treated at once, usually in clinics). Therefore, experts advise strongly that this type of treatment is administered by a qualified physician in a medical clinic with adequate means. Patients should be in good hands if complications arise.

The FDA recommends that Botox injections are administered at a rate not less than once every 3 months.

The trade name of this product in the U.S. is Botox , and in Europe , Vistabel .

Before injecting ...

If you are interested in receiving this type of treatment, finally, point out some tips from the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery:

  • Make sure it is a qualified doctor who performed the procedure of injecting botulinum toxin.

  • Make sure the doctor is trained and experienced in cosmetic skin surgery of the face.

  • Ask for all the information you need about the benefits and risks of this technique.

  • Avoid alcohol and remain on your back for several hours after the procedure.

  • Choose a medical clinic that provides guaranteed sterile technique and appropriate equipment if a problem occurs.

09 September, 2011

Cosmetic surgery

Is socially acceptable to have a skin care, smooth and flawless is an attribute of physical attractiveness. However, we are often hard to accept that as we age, keeping the skin healthy, radiant light and becomes increasingly difficult. The face is the "calling card" of the people and so we want to take care of both, yet is the most exposed body area and therefore more vulnerable to the harmful rays of the sun .

Cosmetic surgery has developed rapidly in recent years

The search for a perfect body and eternal youth by many people has led to a rapid development of aesthetic and cosmetic surgery in recent years throughout the world. It is said, not without irony, that in countries like Brazil, where they live with other developed areas very poor, there are many more cosmetic surgery clinics that basic health centers. In many other countries, the high demand for cosmetic surgery procedures by citizens has also led to an extraordinary proliferation of these clinics or centers that provide technical and surgical care for a thousand and one problems of beauty and health.

In Here we review very briefly the most popular techniques and procedures, beyond those already described in previous articles.

It is important to know that most of the techniques we describe, like many other surgical procedures involving or involve certain risks and uncertainties such as infection, bleeding or bleeding, problems with blood clotting and adverse reactions to anesthesia. It is therefore important to choose a plastic surgeon or a specialist in the field highly qualified and accredited clinic or center that provides basic guarantees of hygiene and equipment to reduce or avoid such risks and complications.

have been described more than thirty procedures and treatment techniques for aesthetic and cosmetic problems from which this article will discuss the most important and frequently requested. The treatment referred to breasts as well as facial cosmetic surgery , are skipped in this article because they are treated separately in other articles.

Tummy Tuck

is basically a procedure different from liposuction , which involves flattening or leveling of abdomen by removing fat from the belly and the strengthening of the skin and abdominal wall muscles. It is usually done with anesthesia or local with sedation generally does not last more than 2-3 hours and allowed to return to the patient's normal activity within 2-4 weeks.

"Peeling" or "peeling"

The peeling or "bare" chemical in the skin of the face is a chemical process in which substances are used as phenol or trichloroacetic acid in order to restore the skin of the face, eliminating wrinkles and pigmented lesions or spots or patches of skin caused by sun exposure, using a face mask that produces a bare, ie, an irritation of the upper layers of the skin of the face with subsequent desquamation. This technique works best on smooth thin skin with superficial wrinkles. Takes 1 to 2 hours and requires no anesthesia. Produces or causes little local discomfort, such as redness of the skin or warmth, which disappear in a few days.

Local injections of fat or collagen

These injections are given in the skin of the face, lips, cheeks, chin or, ultimately, the body area to be modified. It is a very simple procedure that usually requires no anesthesia, short duration and only involves the risk of occurrence of an allergic reaction to collagen (a test usually performed prior to injection of the substance to verify whether or not allergies ).

Dermabrasion or skin abrasion

consists of a mechanical scraping of the surface layers of the skin through a small high-speed rotary wheel. Often this technique is used to smooth the skin surface irregularities, including acne and other small facial scars, marks or fine wrinkles, especially around the mouth.

Surgery of the ear and eyelid

techniques exist to treat the ears separate or "jug" (otoplasty), closer to the head or techniques for reducing the size of large ears. They are usually made ​​in children with certain complexes.

Other techniques, such as blepharoplasty, corrects the fall of the upper eyelids and eliminate pockets of fat from the lower eyelids.

Facial implants

basically change the shape and pursue the basic balance of the face, using small facial implants to build a retracted chin, cheekbones, or redraw emphasize the jaw line.

Finally, many other techniques are used to correct problems of the forehead, remove facial wrinkles and scars by laser or by reinstating the hair grafts hair in bald areas, we address further in this article

18 August, 2011

Damaged Hair Treatments

It is very important the care of dry hair. This condition can be caused by several factors: the shampoo, exposure to weather, the daily dry hair or use hair appliances such as irons. But whatever the reason then we will give some treatments for damaged hair .
Know your hair type to determine which products to use. For example if you have curly hair is good for everyday use a conditioner to prevent frizz. If you have straight hair you should use a shampoo that suits your hair type. And so with different hair types. This is the first step you should do to make treatments for damaged hair .
You start with a moisturizing shampoo and conditioner for your hair type. But be sure to select a quality product, so you should avoid large container products and if your hair is very battered, maybe it's good to spend a little more money but getting strong hair.
The hair treatments can be varied abused, but what if you have to do is to hydrate the hair with a spray. This product is usually among the best for moisturizing the hair. This will give an extra shine to your hair and do not usually tend to be expensive. You can also use a moisturizer for the hair instead of spray.
Another way to care for damaged hair is through the cream baths . These are sold at any home and are great for cosmetic restoration of damaged hair. In the market there are a variety but is always trying to acquire good quality if you want fast results and real. These are applied to wet hair, typically after shampooing and must wait 3 to 5 minutes to act. Then removed with warm water. You can also cream baths have any hair salon quality products and in turn enjoy a nice scalp massage is great for damaged hair .
And avoid hot appliances near the hair, that is, if you use lots of hair irons, hot rollers, blow dryers, etc.. You'll make your hair continue abused, but at least the following treatments can bear a little more health to your damaged hair .
Treatments for Damaged Hair Damaged Hair Treatments

10 August, 2011

First aid; Shock and dismay. What are they?

A shock and fainting occur as a result of the lack or decreased blood supply to tissues that not enough oxygen. When the brain receives an adequate supply of oxygen produces a feeling of weakness, disorientation and dizziness.

  • Shock can occur after an accident in which blood has been lost too.

  • After a severe infection with fluid loss.

  • After a severe burn .

  • Other processes that occur after loss of fluids or blood.

  • When blood flow is too slow, low blood pressure and too little oxygen circulating through the body.

When this happens, the person:

  • It will remain pale.

  • Begin to sweat and stay cool.

  • They get dizzy.

  • Will the weak and rapid pulse.

  • Will have low blood pressure.

  • Will the rapid, shallow breathing.

  • You'll be nervous the intranquila.

  • You can lose consciousness.

What if someone suffers a shock or faint?

First and whenever possible, we must treat the underlying cause:

  • Monitor vital signs, treat the injury if possible and reassure the people.

  • The person should lie on your back, preferably with your feet up, to ensure that enough blood reaches the brain.

  • Make sure the person is warm, comfortable and covered by a blanket, if possible.

  • Do not give anything to drink since it runs the risk of choking.

  • If the person vomits or bleeds from the mouth, it should be side to prevent choking.

  • Call an ambulance and evacuate the victim urgently. A person with a shock should always be seen by a doctor.

06 August, 2011

First aid; What if someone is choking?


These tips are general recommendations for an emergency. Not intended to replace professional classes in first aid and resuscitation.

The airway obstruction prevents air and therefore the oxygen it contains into the lungs. Onset is usually sudden and in most cases caused by the entry of a foreign body in the airways.

This problem is much more common in young children as they often put in the mouth all kinds of objects. In adults, most often the blockage is caused by food but can be caused by other objects such as dentures, etc..

The obstruction of the airway may be incomplete or complete. In the case of incomplete obstruction a person may be agitated, with coughing important. Usually the cough causes expulsion of the foreign body being all in a fright. We should not give back blows of the individual and that could cause the foreign body penetrated deeper and establishing a complete obstruction.

On the contrary, when the airway is completely obstructed by a foreign body, the air in the lungs may out so the person can not cough or speak, or breathe. The person is agitated and distressed, many gestures and, characteristically, he puts his hands to his throat.

The best way to address this problem is to use the Heimlich maneuver, which is performed as follows: Stand behind the victim, put his arms around her waist and bend the person's body forward.

  • Press fist and put it on its inner edge just four fingers above the navel of the subject.

  • Cójase your fist with your other hand.

  • Make a strong pressure inward and upward.

  • Release the pressure, keeping the position of the hands and repeat the maneuver until the object stuck in the throat is expelled through the mouth.

If you yourself who is choking, place a fist on his belly and one hand on top. Push ahead with the first hand to the stomach. Repeat until the object stuck in the throat is expelled through the mouth.

04 August, 2011

First aid; What if someone has a bleeding nose?


These tips are general recommendations for an emergency. Not intended to replace professional classes in first aid and resuscitation.

 A nosebleed or epistaxis occurs when you break one of the small blood vessels in the mucous membrane of the nose, for different reasons.

To stop bleeding pressure must be made ​​directly on the bleeding nostril and against the nasal septum for 5 to 10 minutes. The head is tilted forward to avoid swallowing or aspiration of blood or clots. The patient must breathe through the mouth.

If bleeding continues, it is necessary to go to an emergency department. If a person has repeated nosebleeds and intense, you should see your physician for the problem.

03 August, 2011

First aid; What if someone is bleeding?


These tips are general recommendations for an emergency. Not intended to replace professional classes in first aid and resuscitation.

The main objective of the person providing first aid is to stop the bleeding of the victim as quickly as possible.

The severity of bleeding is closely related to the volume of lost blood through the vessels blood, the greater the volume of blood lost, the greater risk to the maintenance of life. Thus, the bleeding can range from mild to severe.

Depending on the injured vessel, the bleeding is arterial, venous or capillary, and as the place where blood is lost, the bleeding is external, internal or externalized, ie, occur within the body but flow out through a natural orifice of the body such as ears, nose, mouth, anus or genitals.

Before any bleeding should:

  • Monitoring vital signs.

  • Control and stop the bleeding using:
    • The direct compression with the hand or a finger on the bleeding focus.

    • The compression of the artery that provides blood to the bleeding wound.

Severe bleeding or bleeding from small wounds usually stop in a few minutes to make pressure on the bleeding point with a cloth or a handkerchief, which should be as clean as possible.

The deepest wounds or cuts that affect the veins produce dark blood oozing slowly and steadily. Bleeding usually can be stopped by pressing it gently into the wound with a clean cloth or tissue and then applying a clean bandage. Often needed sewing or suturing the wounds so it will be necessary to consult a physician after first aid.

The bleeding of an artery can be a serious problem and even cause death in minutes if the bleeding is controlled, so that some appropriate emergency first aid is essential. This type of bleeding does throb and the blood gushed out each time it beats the pulse. The blood is usually bright red and intermittent spurts.

To stop bleeding from an artery, is to exert strong pressure on the bleeding point and keep it until the patient receives appropriate medical treatment. Press a clean cloth or use a hand if there is anything else available. Put a bandage on the wound if possible. If blood soaks through the bandage press harder until the bleeding stops. Do not remove soaked bandages because it will draw the blood clot formation, but if necessary, place another on top.

If by direct compression on the wound to stop bleeding is achieved, you can try to compress the artery that carries blood to the wound, especially hemorrhages in the extremities.

Only in very special cases (when other methods are not effective, the bleeding continues and may mean the loss of life) technique can be applied tourniquet. If you take the decision to loosen a tourniquet is recommended every few minutes and should be targeted where they can, even with his own blood, the time when it was laid.

should be the person lie down, preferably with the head lower than the body. This will ensure that sufficient oxygen reaches the brain. If possible, position the wounded area higher than the rest of the body so that the pressure and therefore reduce the bleeding.

Do not attempt to clean the wound. Arterial bleeding should be treated by a doctor.

02 August, 2011

What if a baby is unconscious, not breathing and no pulse?


These tips are general recommendations for an emergency. Not intended to replace professional classes in first aid and resuscitation.

The performance against a cardiac arrest of an infant not much different from the action to be performed in an adult.

For the opening of the airways, is often enough to make a small extension of the neck. It is important to a good cleaning of the mouth. To breathe air into the baby will use the technique of mouth-nose placing the rescuer's mouth so completely covering the mouth and nose of the child.

If we find no pulse, begin cardiac massage: locate the point of compression in the middle of sternum two fingers just below the line joining the nipples. Compression we will do with the index and middle fingers sinking the sternum 1.5 to 3 cm and seeking to establish a rate of about 120 compressions per minute.

's relationship with cycles of resuscitation will be a blow five cardiac massage.

01 August, 2011

First aid; The technique of word of mouth


These tips are general recommendations for an emergency. Not intended to replace professional classes in first aid and resuscitation.

The word of mouth technique is applied to adults and older children:

  • Open the airway using head tilt-chin, described above.

  • Cover your nose with your index finger and thumb of the hand placed on the forehead.

  • Take a deep breath and applying the lips around the casualty, take the air heavy and slow, checking with the view that the person's chest rises, a sign that air has entered the lungs.

  • Repeat this maneuver twice and then continue blowing air at a rate of 12 to 15 breaths per minute until help arrives or the person starts breathing again.

Checking the functioning of the heart

We may check the status and functioning of the heart by examining the arterial pulse. The pulse is checked in the neck, on either side of the Adam's apple, where they spend the arteries that carry blood to the head (carotid arteries). You must use the index and middle fingers of the hand (never the thumb, which note the pulse itself).

If there is no pulse, begin external cardiac massage, with which you can substitute part of the artificial heart function.

The heart is located in the center of the chest between the sternum and spine. Therefore, if we apply force to the sternum, the heart against the spine to contract and expel the blood that contains in its interior. When you stop pressing on the sternum the heart fill with blood again passively and so on.

The technique consists of:
  • Put on your knees to one side of the patient, at the height of your shoulders.

  • With the index and middle fingers find the bottom of the rib at its junction with the sternum.

  • Following these two fingers are placed the heel of your other hand on the lower third of the sternum.

  • Place the heel of your other hand on top, interlocking the fingers to prevent these touch the chest.

  • Keep elbows straight and always support your body weight on your hands to make it easier to push for help from gravity.

  • Squeeze hard and fast the sternum to get a vertical displacement of about 3.5 to 5 cm. Then relax the pressure and repeat again.

  • It should get a rate of 60 to 80 compressions per minute in adults. It is so important to compress the heart is empty, how to decompress so you can fill with blood again.

  • If cardiac arrest is meant a situation in which spontaneous respiration and circulation do not exist (the person is unresponsive, not breathing and no pulse), should initiate basic life support maneuvers in which they combine respiratory resuscitation techniques and external cardiac massage until help arrives or there is recovery of the patient.

29 July, 2011

Firts aid; Recognition of the vital signs

These tips are general recommendations for an emergency. Not intended to replace professional classes in first aid and resuscitation.
To know if a sick or injured person is conscious must ask a simple questions like what happens?, do you hear?,can I help?, or touch on the shoulder to see if it responds.

If the person says is that it maintains the level of consciousness logically correct and vital signs. If no response, despite several stimuli such as pinching to observe their reactions, you are unconscious. We must immediately notify an ambulance, if you have not already done so, and examine the breathing and pulse.

To check if a person breathes, the person providing first aid must use the view (see if the chest rises and falls) , hearing (put near the mouth to hear breathing) and touch (bring her cheek to her mouth and nose of the patient to feel the warmth of the exhaled air).

If the patient is breathing, you will not need to further explore the vital signs . If not breathing, begin resuscitation immediately lungs.

When a person stops breathing, the only effective maneuver is currently trying to introduce air into your lungs. To achieve this we must perform a series of maneuvers:

  • Lay the person flat on the floor face up.

  • Examine the mouth to remove any foreign bodies (dentures, gum or other objects that may impede the passage of air).

  • Open the airway. This call is made head tilt-chin: you place your index and middle fingers of one hand under his chin and pressed with the thumb on the chin, pushing it up, while the other hand is placed on the forehead pushing it down. This move will get the base of the tongue so as not to obstruct the passage of air through the hyperextension of the neck. It should be noted that if very strong suspicion that there may be an injury to the cervical spine should not then move the head, and is forced to try to do artificial respiration absolutely still trying to keep the neck of the victim.

  • It is important to remember that in the case of an injured motorist owes never try to remove the helmet, as if he had a neck injury unfortunately, relatively common, only make things worse.

Next, apply artificial respiration techniques that, as the case may be:

  • Word of mouth: the most common.

  • Mouth to nose: if there is a serious wound in the mouth or poisoning.

  • Word of mouth-nose-in newborns and infants.

21 July, 2011

First Aid


These tips are general recommendations for an emergency. Not intended to replace professional classes in first aid and resuscitation.

Why learn first aid?

First aid is an important technique. Performing a few simple procedures and following certain guidelines, you can save lives if given basic treatment until professional medical help arrives.

Also remember that more is learned with practice. In an emergency there is no time to read instructions. If you have memorized some of the most basic procedures, you can react quickly and effectively.

Where do I start when giving first aid?

is important to identify those situations that pose an immediate threat to life.

The vital signs that we recognize are: awareness, breathing and pulse. It is interesting to know the recognition techniques and vital signs remain calm enough while these checks are being made.

The scan order is based on the priority criteria:

  • Ensure that air enters the lungs properly.

  • Check if you keep the pulse.

  • Detect and control possible major bleeding.

18 July, 2011

Food Tips

While older people live a full and healthy, it is inevitable that even though you can not find the source of eternal youth and the body over time is not the same, one is beginning to worry about as the aging becomes a problem for skin, body and above all, the psyche, so that these changes are not so cruel to the head are simple techniques and healthy eating that will allow the care supply is the basis of good technique anti aging. Until the fountain of youth is all a myth, but there are certain foods that they know very well slow down the effects of aging on human skin.
One of them is the avocado , these fruits are a healthy source of monounsaturated instituted to help reduce bad cholesterol in the body, which has the main problem cover and block the arteries. Avocado is also a good source of vitamin E, vitamin E is an antioxidant that promotes healthy skin and improves the hydration level of skin leaving it softer. The avocado should not be complicated to prepare, just enough to mix in a salad, eat it in slices or sauce directly combined with other products.
The berries are also an excellent source of antioxidants. The dark berries like blueberries and blackberries contain flavonoids that are powerful natural antioxidants. These help protect the body against free radicals, which cause enormous damage to living cells. The berries also contain vitamin C, which helps stimulate the immune system. The berries can make a snack or a very healthy breakfast and not only this but also can be present throughout the day.
Broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage are an important part of the family of cruciferous vegetables. These vegetables help the body fight toxins and cancer. The intake of these vegetables raw or cooked is the best way to consume them. The cooking process destroys enzymes that the body needs good for better health and nutrition.
Nuts are rich in vitamins, minerals and other antioxidants. These fruits can help reduce cholesterol, improve digestive system and prevent cancer.
Food Tips Food Tips

25 June, 2011

Prevention of thrombosis

What is Thrombosis

Thrombosis is a pathological phenomenon in which a vein or artery of the circulatory system is blocked by a thrombus, which is a kind of plug consists of coagulated blood and cells, thus preventing the blood keeps flowing glass from that point.

The circulatory system consists of a network of blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to different organs and tissues (arterioles and capillaries) and a network of vessels of return (venules and veins) that allows the return of blood to the lungs. There expel red blood cells that transport carbon monoxide and oxygen reloaded. From the lungs, returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins (body only veins that carry oxygenated arterial blood), in turn, propel the heart again via the arteries throughout the body.

The risks of not preventing thrombosis

in both an artery and a vein thrombosis can occur. The effects are quite different depending on the case of one or another type of blood vessel. Thrombosis in a blood vessel is very serious because it prevents oxygenated blood continues to flow from that point to the tissues that depend on that artery. The result is ischemia (tissue suffering from lack of blood flow causing anoxia, which means cell suffocation from lack of oxygen.) When the ischemia lasts longer than the tissue can withstand irreversible death occurs in cells of the tissue, which is called infarction. Depending on how vital it is the organ affected and the extent of ischemia, there will be more or less serious effects for the rest of the body.

In the case of a heart attack for example, the impact is very serious because of coronary artery (heart artery) occluded depends a great deal of blood flow to the heart muscle (myocardium) or nerve tissue that controls the rhythm of the heartbeat. If the thrombus does not resolve the heart ends up with in a few hours a stroke of great extent or a serious malignant arrhythmia that makes it impossible to maintain its pumping function and thus cause death.

thrombosis that occurs in other organs such as brain, eye, kidney, limbs, etc.. may not be as strict when it comes to cause death, but always involve the loss of the organ that depended on irrigation cut off, with the important functional losses resulting therefrom (hemiplegia, paralysis of the lateral half of the body, loss of speech, vision loss, dementia , etc.)..

In the case of veins, thrombosis is not usually endanger the life of the person unless it affects the veins that carry blood to the lungs (pulmonary embolism) because that reoxygenation leaves the possibility of venous blood. Thrombosis is the more serious the more extensive the amount of lung blood flow that remains.

With venous thrombosis (pulmonary embolism except already mentioned) that is produced is not a situation of ischemia as such, but the obstruction blood out of the organ to which the vein, which usually causes inflammation, pain and swelling of affected tissues (accumulation of stagnant water from the blood into tissues that are drained by that vein).

Is it the same one thrombosis embolism?

No, not the same. The circulatory system requires two basic conditions to serve its important function, is the condition of the permeability and another defense of the structural integrity and hemostasis. The first relates to the need for blood vessels are always free for the passage of the blood, and the second refers to the need to repair the walls of the vessel in case they suffer an injury.

The body with very complex systems, keeping a delicate balance, ensuring a perfect harmony of the defense provided that the integrity and permeability as essential. In the case of the hemostatic system have to mention two key, the system of platelet aggregation and the coagulation system.

The aggregation system

consists of the first blood cells (platelets) that, as tile, stick to where necessary in order to plug a break.

The coagulation system

is constituted by the second blood proteins that promote the formation of anchors and cables of the cluster of platelets and other cellular debris, thus forming what is called a thrombus or blood clot.

At times, there are pathological situations or by going injuring the vessel wall (eg atherosclerosis ) or function improperly encourage active or poorly controlled aggregation systems and / or coagulation failure occurs balance and subsequent formation of thrombi occluding just by the glass full.

Thrombosis occurs always some unusual circumstances favors the formation of a thrombus attached to the vessel wall. Stroke, however, is the blockage of a blood vessel by a clot that has formed in the circulation or that is a fragment of a blood clot that has traveled through the bloodstream to a stop at the point where it can no longer continue and that fell from an earlier point in the vessel wall where it formed. Thrombosis therefore occurs at the point where the vessel wall has suffered an injury and stroke distance occurs at a point other than where it generated the first thrombus.

What diseases cause thrombosis?

The list of processes that favor the production of thrombosis is quite large:

Arterial thrombosis


is worth noting at the head of all atherosclerosis, a vascular degeneration process favored by certain well-known risk factors for all ( hypertension , snuff , obesity , high cholesterol , excessive alcohol consumption , sedentary lifestyle, diabetes , etc.)..

In atherosclerosis is being produced the deposition of cholesterol and other fats in the wall of large vessels, which narrows the inside of them and ends up producing a rupture of the inner vessel layer (intima-called .) This leads to multiple platelet adhesion and the formation of a blood clot just completely occluding blood flow.

Heart disease

Other processes can produce arterial thrombosis are those cardiac diseases that favor cap or turbulent flow of blood as it passes through the chambers of the heart, as if the blood stops is also encouraged the formation of clots.

In this group of processes are some cardiac arrhythmias (atrial fibrillation, sick sinus syndrome, etc..), vascular malformations, diseases of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy), the cardiac valve disease (valve) and atrial myxoma (tumor of the heart formed in the atrium).

Another heart disease that also causes increased risk of thrombosis is endocarditis (infection of the inner cell layer that lines the heart chambers.)

Coagulation disorders

The list of diseases that promote arterial thrombosis complete with some clotting disorders, certain diseases that increase the number of blood platelets (essential thrombocytosis) or viscosity (polycythemia, monoclonal gammopathies, leukemias ) and other diseases such as vasculitis, sickle cell, etc..

Venous thrombosis

processes that promote venous thrombosis are mostly different from those that increase the risk of arterial thrombosis.

The classically described as provocative factors for venous thrombosis (venous stasis, increased blood viscosity and hypercoagulability) are in full force and least one of them is always present in these diseases.

In this group we find the conditions in which adequate control is lost on power coagulant:

  • Primary hypercoagulability syndromes thrombofilias the primary (antitrombina III deficiency, protein C deficiency, Disease of Leyden, disfrinogenemias, etc..)

  • Hypercoagulability secondary states (cancer, antiphospholipid syndrome, pregnancy, nephrotic syndrome, consumption of some oral contraceptives);

  • Other causes such as prolonged immobilization in bed or hematological diseases (essential thrombocytosis, polycythemia vera, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, sickle cell disease, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia).

What ways are there to treat thrombosis?

Logically, when a thrombosis or arterial embolism far more useful and urgent treatment is one that will restore the blocked blood vessel patency before the ischemic infarction becomes final.

The time available to try this, in the heart attack for example, is only a few hours (6 to 12 hours.) One of the most used in this type of ailment is fibrinolytic therapy, which involves the administration of a or more drugs that dissolve the clot and restore the obstructed vessel permeability.

It is also possible to practice an emergency catheterization it to reach the key point of occlusion, fragmentation of the thrombus and dilate the vessel (angioplastia.) Within this technique it is also possible to accommodate within the coronary vessel permanent stent, which is a semi-rigid device that prevents the artery may close again. A complete technique is called interventional catheterization PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty).

In the case of venous thrombosis, which in most of the time it happens in the veins of the legs, is not as pressing to recover the permeability the glass as if it is to relieve pain and other symptoms, and especially prevent detachment of the thrombus or fragments thereof, ascending cava veins, venous territory to reach the lungs and can cause a pulmonary embolism, as described above. To avoid this, so should be instituted early treatment with anticoagulant medication. Within this type of medication is the most widely used drug heparin as initial treatment, which can be later replaced by coumarin drugs such as acenocoumarol (Sintrom) for maintenance treatment, which must be satisfied for a longer time (usually 1 to 3 months.)

What ways are there to prevent thrombosis?

Without doubt, thrombotic disease prevention is no better than get reduce or eliminate the effect of those conditions that favor the deterioration of the circulatory vessels and the consequent formation of thrombosis. Thus, a measure of great benefit in preventing myocardial infarction, cerebral thrombosis or arterial thrombosis of the legs is trying to be free of the risk factors of atherosclerosis, for example.

Still, there is the possibility of reducing the systems based on aggregation and coagulation by antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin, clopidogrel, and so on. or anticoagulants such as heparin, coumarin derivatives (acenocoumarol, warfarin) or other more recent or imminent occurrence (Lepirudin, ximelagatran, Fondaparina, etc.).. The indication of one or the other is set based on the degree of risk of thrombosis, type of disease that favors the risk, the patient's physical condition and age.

The risks of antiplatelet and anticoagulant

treatment indication antiplatelet or anticoagulant preventive the physician must consider the particular case and the decision must be taken when you are sure that reducing thrombotic risk clearly outweighs the risks associated with these treatments. Both antiplatelet and anticoagulant, but the second, present employment as the main risk of increased incidence of DHF. This danger is today the main factor limiting its use and is higher the older a person so that anticoagulant therapy is indicated with much reserve in the case of older people.

antiplatelet therapy (aspirin in particular) often be at special risk of injury to the gastric mucosa, which can lead to erosive gastritis and even peptic ulcer, although I must say that in recent years have emerged new antiplatelet agents whose use results in a lower frequency of this adverse effect.

There other potential adverse effects as a drug or other choice, but the truth is that the risk of hemorrhage that most concern to doctors. Therefore, the antithrombotic pharmacology research today continues to focus its best efforts to obtain new active compounds with more selective effect on the processes of hemostasis, so that they can get more effective and safer drugs with which to prevent thrombosis without thereby significantly increasing look bleeding risk.

08 June, 2011

Types of fats

Types of fats. The fat, but not enough, it is necessary for the body, but excessive consumption causes obesity and heart problems. Learn what you should eat more fat and what you should eat in moderation. Types of dietary fat Saturated fats: Consumption should be limited to moderate due to increased concentrations in excess of bad cholesterol in the blood. Foods with saturated fats • beef. • Cream of cocoa. • Pork. • Yogurt. • Chicken. • Sausages. • Butter. • Cheese. • Milk. Monounsaturated fats: This type of fat helps reduce cholesterol levels in the blood, long as you eat a diet low in saturated fat. Foods with monounsaturated fats: • Avocado. • Olive oil. • Nuts. • Peanuts. • Almonds. • Olives. • Pistachios. Polyunsaturated fats: It may also decrease the concentration of blood cholesterol, but its main contribution is the omega-3 fatty acids. These serve to reduce the risk of a heart attack and the body uses them as precursors of hormones. Foods with polyunsaturated fats: • Fish in cold water. • Soybean oil. • Wheat germ. • Safflower oil. • Oil flaxseed. • Sunflower seeds.

01 June, 2011

Prevention of diabetic retinopathy

Involvement of the retina of the eye in patients with diabetes mellitus (diabetic retinopathy) is the most common cause of new cases of blindness among adults 20 to 75 years of age. During the first twenty years of the disease, nearly all type 1 diabetic patients and more than 60% of patients with type 2 diabetes develop this serious complication. In the diabetic group in which the disease appears early ( type 1 ), 85% of cases of blindness has been attributed to diabetic retinopathy. In diabetes type 2 (in which diabetes appears later, after 40 years), one third of cases of legal blindness (even with some level of vision, someone unable to work) has been attributed to the diabetic retinopathy.

Ophthalmologist exploring the fundus
Los dibéticos type II should see an ophthalmologist immediately

What is diabetic retinopathy?

Diabetic retinopathy is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus, characterized by the appearance of small dilations in the tiny microscopic blood vessels that supply the retina, or inner membrane of the eye, hemorrhages, exudates, alteration of veins and growth of new blood vessels in the membrane and the posterior surface of the vitreous humor that fills the eye.

The loss of vision that occurs in this complication is the result of several mechanisms of action.

Risk Factors

The main risk factors include age, duration of diabetes mellitus and degree of control, high blood pressure and excess cholesterol in the blood.

The duration of diabetes is probably the most powerful predictor for development and progression of retinopathy. The degree of control of blood sugar has been implicated in numerous scientific studies as a major factor, some studies that used an intensive treatment of diabetes with insulin showed a significant reduction in the risk of retinopathy.

The effect protector of the good blood sugar control has also been confirmed in patients with type 2 diabetes. A major study conducted in the UK 6 years ago showed that improved blood sugar control reduced the risk of developing retinopathy and nephropathy (kidney involvement), and possibly neuropathy (nerve involvement) . The overall complication rate of small blood vessels was reduced by 25% in patients receiving intensive therapy versus those who received conventional treatment.

This important study also showed that tight control of blood pressure in diabetic patients such reduced progression of retinopathy and the risk of deterioration of visual acuity and reduce deaths related to diabetes and stroke.

Measures to prevent diabetic retinopathy

Interventions that have shown benefit in preventing diabetic retinopathy include:

  • Good control of diabetes

  • comprehensive control of hypertension

  • quit

  • laser photocoagulation in patients with early-stage lesions.

Laser photocoagulation has proven effective in significantly reducing severe vision loss and slow the progression of retinopathy. It is a technique that involves destruction of new blood vessels formed in the retina or vitreous hemorrhage by administering multiple shots of a laser beam. Unfortunately, despite its effectiveness, this technique restores sight lost.

It is very important to consider that diabetic retinopathy occurs with little or no visual or ophthalmic symptoms until vision loss occurs. Since this treatment is to prevent such loss and retinopathy may be asymptomatic, it is essential to identify and treat these patients early, early in the disease. To achieve this goal, diabetic patients should be evaluated routinely to detect the disease at a stage that can be treated.

In this connection it is interesting to follow these recommendations:

  • Patients with type 1 diabetes should be examined by an ophthalmologist between 3 and 5 years after being diagnosed with the disease.

  • Patients with type 2 diabetes should be evaluated by an ophthalmologist as soon as possible after diagnosis.

  • All diabetic patients should be examined annually by an ophthalmologist with expertise in the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. If cases of progressive retinopathy, checks should be made more frequently.

  • Since pregnancy is a factor that can accelerate the progression of diabetic retinopathy, diabetic women who become pregnant should be examined by an ophthalmologist in the first trimester of pregnancy and periodically during treatment.

  • You should begin treatment with laser photocoagulation in diabetic patients type 2 diabetic retinopathy lesions in early stages to prevent the progression of complications and blindness.
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