21 February, 2011

Breast self-examination: what do you see?

The breast cancer is, throughout the world, the most common malignancy in women, representing 28% of all cancers. It is also typical of developed countries. Currently one in eight women will develop, over a lifetime, a breast cancer.

The risk of developing it increases progressively with increasing age of the woman, a woman of 70 years presents a risk nearly 10 times higher than a 40.

The finding of a lump, lump or mass of hard consistency is the most common manifestation of breast cancer (80%). Another manifestation of the same, though more rarely (5%) is the bloody discharge from the nipple.

The detection of early-stage tumor carries a better prognosis and longer survival, moreover, in the case of breast cancer, its detection early allows less mutilating surgery and minor sequelae.

Breast Cancer Screening

The three most important tests for early detection of breast cancer with which we currently are:

  • Breast self

  • Clinical examination by the gynecologist

  • MamografĂ­a .

Breast self examination

breast self examination is the breast regularly by the woman herself in order to detect any alteration to suspect the presence of a tumor.

This is a simple test that is safe and low cost, but for its proper application requires a previous training of the employee.

Every woman should know the morphology and texture of your breasts, so that any changes will be discovered the same as soon as possible.

The breast self-examination lasts a few minutes, 4 or 5 at most. If the woman still has the menstruation have to practice the next day to complete the cycle. If the woman is in menopause should perform self-examination on the same day each month, to acquire and establish a permanent habit. Ideally, self-starting since the girl begins to have its first rules .

What is breast self-examination?

The self-examination should include:

  • A visual examination in a mirror

  • A manual examination of both breasts and armpits.

The pattern to be followed is:


the woman was placed standing before the mirror with your arms hanging along the body, naked from the waist up, with completely bare breasts and a good light (Figure 1).

Drawing for the first position of self-examination
Figure 1

In this posture observed:

  • if there are depressions in the breasts or abnormal elevations of the skin

  • if there are changes of color in the same

  • if the shape of the breast or nipple is different

  • scabs or retractions if the areola or nipple

  • any changes in relation to previous months.

It should not be alarmed if one breast is lower than the other or one is bigger than the other, which may be normal.


Raising arms toward the ceiling, she rotates the trunk to the right and left to check if any of the changes noted above (Figure 2). Then place hands on hips, pressing against his own body and from renewing mammary observation indicated in the first period.

Figure 2


Lying on the bed face up, you should put your left hand under your head and use the right hand to feel the left breast, fingers together, but not rigid (Figure 3). Try to see if they touch or hard lumps or nodules are painful areas. To do this we proceed as if the chest was a perfect circle that is divided into 4 quadrants: first palpate the upper inner quadrant from top to bottom or center of the thorax to the periphery, then the lower inner quadrant, then the outer bottom and then the upper outer (Figure 4). To finish the areola and nipple, so there are none left breast region unexplored.

Drawing for the third position of self-examination
Figure 3


With arm extended along the body will feel the hollow of the armpit hand sliding up and down the ribs (Figure 5), to check for lymph nodes to jump by moving the hand.

Figure 4


Finally, lightly squeeze the nipple between your fingers and look for any discharge comes out, looking then in color and features.

Drawing for the fifth position of self-examination
Figure 5


Similarly we will explore the right breast, placing right hand under his head and using the left hand to palpate.

The tests can discover:

  • Alterations of the nipple: if reversed or withdrawn, if you have any erosion or damage to the skin.

  • Serous or bloody nipple spontaneously or induced by pressure.

  • Redness of the skin of the breast, heat gain or appearance of "orange peel".

  • Presence of a breast lump, fixed or mobile, or poorly defined specific limits.

  • Retraction of the skin by setting a tumor below it.

Although the presence of lumps or discharge from the nipple may be due to many causes, in addition to breast cancer, appeared before the woman should consult a specialist.

Disadvantages of breast self examination

breast self-examination has a number of disadvantages:

  • You can generate situations of anxiety for many women, the psychological burden that represents its involvement in cancer diagnosis.

  • Because of the possibility, especially in young women, to find multiple nodes that will not ultimately transcendence.

It has been shown that its use serves to reduce mortality from breast cancer. Though probably this is the result of poor application of the technique and a low tracking the same, ie, that few women perform well, completely and periodically their self-exploration


Today, mammography is the ideal method for early diagnosis of breast cancer, since it can detect small tumors or nonpalpable deep, also has shown that regular mammograms for women over 50 years reduces mortality breast cancer by 20-30%.

In any case, despite the above, the self-exam can be a method that should be considered where there is no organized programs of early detection by mammography and in selected groups of women without symptoms, those that practice does not lead to emotional overload and can be adopted as a routine hygienic habit.

11 February, 2011


What is liposuction?

Liposuction, fat suction or suction lipectomy is a surgical technique used to remove unwanted fat deposits from the surface areas of the body for cosmetic purposes. For this purpose, plastic surgeons practicing liposuction on the chin, neck, cheeks, upper arms, breasts, abdomen, buttocks, hips, thighs, knees, calves and ankles .

Operating in an operating room
Liposuction involves certain risks

It is important to note that this technique or treatment is not used as a substitute for weight reduction, but as a procedure to remove localized subcutaneous fat, which is not easily removed by conventional methods of weight loss diet and exercise .

What is?

Once selected body areas to be treated, is usually applied a local anesthetic and the surgeon proceeds by small incisions in the skin through which inserts a small hollow tube called a cannula. This is connected to a machine that creates a powerful vacuum or suction effect, hence its name. The cannula is moving under the skin for the fat layers that you want to delete, and aspire to be diluted.

As the treated area are asleep under anesthesia local, patients sometimes experience sensations such as vibration and friction during the procedure. Takes about 1 to 2 hours, but depends on the operated area and the amount of fat removed.

When this technique is indicated?

Many people, especially women, want to sculpt your body to improve appearance, enhance your figure and feel better when they look in the mirror looking for the perfect body.

Liposuction, also sometimes called liposculpture, is indicated in people with a relatively normal body areas showing localized excess fat under the skin. Most body areas where you can practice this technique have been mentioned previously. If the patient's skin is firm and elastic, of course get better results in body contouring.

Although it has been shown that this procedure does not improve the condition known as cellulite or orange peel, addressed in another article in this section, some surgeons plastics offer other techniques to solve this problem.

When is contraindicated liposuction?

This technique should probably contraindicated as a treatment for weight loss in patients obese , people with serious health problems like diabetes , hypertension , heart disease, etc.., if the patient has had previous surgery recently the same area, or around, or if you have poor blood circulation in the area.

Risks and side effects of this technique

Like all surgical procedures, performing liposuction involves certain risks. It is therefore important to choose carefully and correct to the best candidates for surgery, to avoid unnecessary complications.

At times, it can cause severe trauma to the skin of the surgical site, especially when multiple or extensive areas suck at the same time. Although serious complications are fortunately rare, infections, bleeding or dehydration from excessive loss of body fluids during surgery can cause major damage.

The practice incisions in the skin are usually small and strategically made, so the Scars are usually mild and are hidden. However, there may be other skin problems such as wrinkling or discoloration of the skin.

After surgery, the treated areas usually remain swollen and bruised for several days or weeks. Although in most cases these problems disappear in a few weeks or months, not extraordinary that they can stay for many months.

Testicular self-examination

Why a self-exam?

The testicles may have very different diseases, some of them slow and progressive evolution, but also other development faster. Some conditions that affect the testicles are serious, but most are not.

know the feeling, normal appearance and size of the testicles is a good habit, so that changes can be noted quickly if necessary.

Signs should call our attention:

  • A lump in a testicle

  • Pain and / or increased sensitivity in either testicle

  • Discharge of pus through the opening of the urethra in the penis (meatus)

  • Blood in sperm

  • Accumulation of fluid in the scrotum

  • Feeling of heaviness in the groin or scrotum

  • An enlargement of a testicle (one of them is usually higher than the other, but the size and shape should remain more or less constant).

  • An enlarged area of ​​the breast or chest, with or without hypersensitivity.

How to examine your testicles

Check your testicles regularly as follows:

  • Perform self-exploration while taking a hot bath or long shower, as this softens the skin of the scrotum (skin containing the testes), which makes it easier to feel the testicles inside.

  • Examine the scrotum for a possible bump on the skin or internal folds.

  • Feel around the scrotum and testicles in the palm of your hand and feel the difference between the testicles. One is always higher and stays lower. This is completely normal.

  • Examine one testicle, and then compare each other. Use both hands to turn the testicles gently between thumb and forefinger.

  • Check the possible existence of lumps or bumps, as both testicles should be smooth except at one pole of the testis, the place where the tube that carries sperm, epididymis, and then continues with the vas deferens ( league in which vasectomy). This is at the top and back of the testicle, usually visible as irregular.

Testicular Cancer Incidence

The testicular cancer represents only 1% -2% of all cancers in men. The maximum involvement occurs between 15 and 35.

Although testicular cancer is rare, not so much finding a lump in the testicles. There are many conditions that can be easily confused with testicular cancer. Most times it is not anything serious. If there has been a self-examination and found a lump, you are advised to go to the doctor for further exploration.

Tanning carrot juice

The carrot is good for sunbathing. Carrot juice is an effective sunscreen ideal for healthy looking skin, smooth and well hydrated. Benefits of carrots for tanning: • Protects the skin from the negative influence of the sun, due to beta-carotene antioxidant power also protects from the destructive action of free radicals, preventing premature aging of the skin. • Beta-carotene containing carrot, increases the production of melanin, a compound that makes the skin more resistant against UVA and UVB, while giving it a very attractive shade of brown. • It is best to consume a few days before sun exposure and will help you get the desired tone. For all the foregoing, the carrot is common ingredient in many sunscreens.
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